This takes the scope probe accessory described previously, and repeats the measurements with a higher frequency oscilloscope (>350MHz) and higher frequency probes (250MHz). The results are even more impressive at higher frequencies.
I’ve recently had to debug several scope’s 2kV-3kV HV supply and the CRT’s Z-axis waveforms at 2.5kV. So far I’ve got away with using a homemade 1000:1 voltage divider and a multimeter. Since that is crude and not particularly safe, I’m not going to mention the details in order to avoid someone apeing me and hurting themselves.
Then, at a recent auction I managed to pick up:
- a 40kV meter for measuring 17kV anode voltages, but which barely registers 2kV
- a Tek P6013A 12kV 1000:1 100kHz scope probe
The probe was functional but missing part of the handle. While not strictly necessary, I wanted to have a little fun fabricating the missing part…
What can you see, test and measure with a traditional time domain reflectometer (TDR)? The answer is “more than you might expect”:
- measure impedance variations in connectors/filters/antennas/PCBs
- locate short/open circuits and damage in cables
- locate intermittent faults in cables and connectors
- locate connectors in cables
and can resolve discontinuities around 2cm apart. That resolution is at least 10 times better than can be obtained with the typical homebrew logic pulse + oscilloscope combination.
I recently bought a couple of cheap 1970s Tektronix 1502s in the hope that I could make a single working frankenmachine. My initial assessment was depressing: one had a cracked and broken case (so I assumed the CRT was also broken), the other’s electrolytic caps had spewed acid across the PSU and had a faulty 2kV PSU, and both had defective NiCd batteries – and it won’t even start without a working battery. But eventually I managed to get both working: I recapped the PSUs, rewelded the case with methylene chloride, used my “new” 12kV scope probe and 40kV meter to repair the HV PSU, created a “NiCd emulator”, and the CRT wasn’t damaged after all. Later reading of a TekScope magazine indicates it isn’t surprising the CRT survived: it is mechanically completely isolated from the chassis to protect against up to 26 12″ drops.
So I am now the proud possessor of two nice little portable waterproof instruments, literally designed for field use – one of the service manuals indicates they were used with Patriot missile defence systems.
A non-functional Tektronix 465 oscilloscope with a dented case and several serious faults was recently donated to my local HackSpace. Since they didn’t want another broken scope, I took it to see what was wrong. Eventually, after learning about CRT theory, with the help of very knowledgable people on the TekScopes forum, and gingerly measuring waveforms at -2450V, I came to the conclusion the CRT’s grid was faulty. Reluctantly removing the CRT, I found that it could not be repaired. Since parts of the CRT are rather beautiful, I decided to salvage those parts for display. This note outlines the original tube, the fault, and the process of turning it into something fit for a display cabinet.
This note shows that measuring a digital signal’s risetimes and falltimes does not require multi-GHz oscilloscopes; with imagination, very cheap test equipment is sufficient. Measurements show that even common-or-garden 74LVC gates can have 10%-90% transition times of around 625ps.
I already have useful low/medium frequency signal sources, spectrum analysers and oscilloscopes. Now I want to inexpensively measure RF filters and transmission line imperfections. This is possible for only £32/$48, as illustrated by the measured response of 300MHz and 460MHz high-pass filters and an open-stub transmission line filter:
The standard equipment for measuring impedance variations is a Time Domain Reflectometer, TDR. TDRs are very effective but resolving small elements requires a wide bandwidth, which implies the TDR will be very expensive. This note explores a £35/$55 alternative based on SDR dongles and noise sources, to see what can and cannot be achieved.
Although there are limitations, initial results are surprisingly good and useful. For example, Figure 1 shows reflections in two different transmission lines with an open-circuit stub 3.1m from the TDR. The first stub is 19cm long, and the second is 29cm long.
The stubs’ differing lengths are clearly distinguishable.
Why do such impedance variations matter? Because with RF circuits and medium/high speed digital circuits, connections must be uniform-impedance correctly terminated transmission lines. Impedance discontinuities in RF circuits causes peaks and troughs in the frequency response, leading to poor performance and/or link failure. Impedance discontinuities in digital circuits cause signal integrity problems, leading to marginal operation and/or pattern-sensitive errors.
For a while my best probes have been HP10020A 1.5GHz passive probes, but only the 10:1 variant. They are really pleasant to use because they are light, robust and cheap (unlike active probes), have very convenient spear tips, and most importantly, don’t distort the signal (unlike the common 10:1 high impedance probes). For the latter reason, these poorly named “low impedance Z0” probes have been a preferred way of looking at high-speed signals. For more information on their characteristics, see my scope probe reference material.
The only problem has been that I only have two, and so have been reluctant to use them in case they were damaged.
Well, that’s changed thanks to Ebay and an Australian vendor: I was able to buy a new-old HP10020A with the 1:1, 5:1, 10:1, 20:1, 100:1 tips, and all accessories in a case remarkably cheaply. That’s the definition of a good transaction: both parties are pleased.
In the late 70s Burr-Brown made some of the most advanced analogue ICs on the open market. Technology limitations prevented the full integration of many components, so the “thick-film hybrid” IC was used instead. As a publicity gimmick Burr-Brown distributed a calendar of the some of the ICs internals.
For no reason other than the pictures are pretty in themselves, I kept them. Now I’ve finally got round to crudely digitising them. Here they are…